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Main article: History of the Cherokee language. See also: Cherokee history. See also: Cherokee syllabary and Sequoyah. Play media. A sign in Tahlequah, Oklahoma in English and Cherokee.

The bilingual language immersion school, operated by the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians , teaches the same curriculum as other American primary schools.

Main article: Cherokee syllabary. Main articles: Cherokee Unicode block and Cherokee Supplement. The standard Digohweli font displays the new-form.

Snowbird Cherokees: People of Persistence. University of Georgia Press. Retrieved May 22, Tar Heel Junior Historian. North Carolina Museum of History.

Archived from the original PDF on Endangered Languages Project. Retrieved April 9, SIL International. Retrieved May 16, Cherokee One Feather.

Archived from the original on June 29, Retrieved July 2, Retrieved Feb 20, April Archived from the original PDF on July 15, Retrieved June 1, United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians.

Archived from the original on April 25, Archived from the original PDF on February 1, Retrieved June 2, Glottolog 3. Retrieved May 30, Tahlequah Daily Press.

Archived from the original on April 12, Retrieved May 9, Retrieved Native Languages of the Southeastern United States. U of Nebraska Press.

North Carolina Public Radio. Archived from the original on May 14, Retrieved May 14, Tulsa World.

Southwest Journal of Linguistics. Native Languages of the Americas. Westport, CT: Tarrytown, NY: Wicazo Sa Review. University of Minnesota Press.

New York Times. Retrieved June 23, August 13, Cherokee Phoenix. American Annals of Education. Chronicles of Oklahoma. Retrieved April 4, Ethnologue : Languages of the World.

Archived from the original on Indian Country Diaries. Asheville Citizen-Times. Cherokee Nation. Retrieved June 5, Cherokee Preservation Foundation.

Archived from the original on April 7, Retrieved April 8, Western Carolina University. A Grammar and Dictionary of the Cherokee Language. Dissertation, University of Georgia.

Spike Gildea, pp. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Beginning Cherokee. University of Oklahoma Press:Norman.

Retrieved 15 January Retrieved May 18, Archived from the original on May 8, Georgia Worcester v. Georgia Cherokee Nation v. Milam W.

Gordon John W. See also: Cherokee-language Wikipedia. Iroquoian languages. Languages of Oklahoma. English German Spanish Vietnamese.

Languages of the United States. Dialects of American English. Chamorro Hawaiian Refaluwasch Samoan Tokelauan. Arikara Caddo Wichita Kitsai. Central Kalapuya Northern Kalapuya Yoncalla.

Konkow Maidu Nisenan Chico. Other historians hold that, judging from linguistic and cultural data, the Tuscarora people migrated South from other Iroquoian-speaking people in the Great Lakes region in ancient times.

After extended harsh warfare in the Southeast, in the s, the Tuscarora left the area and "returned" to the New York area, counting their tribal migration complete by Linguistic analysis shows a relatively large difference between Cherokee and the northern Iroquoian languages, suggesting they had migrated long ago.

Scholars posit a split between the groups in the distant past, perhaps — years ago. In , there was a disturbance in Virginia Colony as the Rechahecrians or Rickahockans , as well as the Siouan Manahoac and Nahyssan , broke through the frontier and settled near the Falls of the James, near present-day Richmond, Virginia.

The following year, a combined force of English and Pamunkey drove the newcomers away. The identity of the Rechahecrians has been much debated.

Historians noted the name closely resembled that recorded for the Eriechronon or Erielhonan , commonly known as the Erie tribe , another Iroquoian-speaking people based near the Great Lakes.

The anthropologist Martin Smith theorized some remnants of the tribe migrated to Virginia after the wars —32 , later becoming known as the Westo to English in the Carolina colony.

A few historians suggest this tribe was Cherokee. Virginian traders developed a small-scale trading system with the Cherokee in the Piedmont before the end of the 17th century; the earliest recorded Virginia trader to live among the Cherokee was Cornelius Dougherty or Dority, in The Cherokee gave sanctuary to a band of Shawnee in the s, but from to the Cherokee and Chickasaw allied with the British, and fought the Shawnee, who were allied with the French, and forced them to move northward.

The Tuscarora War marked the beginning of a British-Cherokee relationship that, despite breaking down on occasion, remained strong for much of the 18th century.

With the growth of the deerskin trade , the Cherokee were considered valuable trading partners, since deer-skins from the cooler country of their mountain hunting-grounds were of a better quality than those supplied by the lowland tribes who were neighbors of the English colonists.

In January , Cherokee murdered a delegation of Muscogee Creek leaders at the town of Tugaloo , marking their entry into the Yamasee War.

It ended in with peace treaties between the colony of South Carolina and the Creek. Hostility and sporadic raids between the Cherokee and Creek continued for decades.

In , the Cherokee ceded lands in South Carolina. Cuming arranged to take seven prominent Cherokee, including Attakullakulla , to London , England.

There the Cherokee delegation signed the Treaty of Whitehall with the British. Political power among the Cherokee remained decentralized, and towns acted autonomously.

In the Cherokee were estimated to have sixty-four towns and villages, and 6, fighting men. In and smallpox epidemics broke out among the Cherokee, who had no natural immunity to the new infectious disease.

Nearly half their population died within a year. Hundreds of other Cherokee committed suicide due to their losses and disfigurement from the disease.

American colonist Henry Timberlake described the Cherokee people as he saw them in The Cherokees are of a middle stature, of an olive colour, tho' generally painted, and their skins stained with gun-powder, pricked into it in very pretty figures.

The hair of their head is shaved, tho' many of the old people have it plucked out by the roots, except a patch on the hinder part of the head, about twice the bigness of a crown-piece, which is ornamented with beads, feathers, wampum , stained deers hair, and such like baubles.

The ears are slit and stretched to an enormous size, putting the person who undergoes the operation to incredible pain, being unable to lie on either side for nearly forty days.

To remedy this, they generally slit but one at a time; so soon as the patient can bear it, they wound round with wire to expand them, and are adorned with silver pendants and rings, which they likewise wear at the nose.

This custom does not belong originally to the Cherokees, but taken by them from the Shawnese, or other northern nations. They that can afford it wear a collar of wampum, which are beads cut out of clam-shells, a silver breast-plate, and bracelets on their arms and wrists of the same metal, a bit of cloth over their private parts, a shirt of the English make, a sort of cloth-boots, and mockasons sic , which are shoes of a make peculiar to the Americans, ornamented with porcupine-quills; a large mantle or match-coat thrown over all complete their dress at home From to , battles broke out between the Cherokee and Muscogee over disputed hunting grounds in North Georgia.

The Cherokee were victorious in the Battle of Taliwa. British soldiers built forts in Cherokee country to defend against the French in the Seven Years' War , which was fought across Europe and was called the French and Indian War on the North American front.

These included Fort Loudoun near Chota. Serious misunderstandings arose quickly between the two allies, resulting in the Anglo-Cherokee War. King George III's Royal Proclamation of forbade British settlements west of the Appalachian crest, as his government tried to afford some protection from colonial encroachment to the Cherokee and other tribes.

The Crown found the ruling difficult to enforce with colonists. The American Indians used this territory as a hunting ground by right of conquest; it had hardly been inhabited for years.

The conflict in Kentucky sparked the beginning of what was known as Dunmore's War — Provincial militias retaliated, destroying more than 50 Cherokee towns.

North Carolina militia in and invaded and destroyed the Overhill towns. In , surviving Cherokee town leaders signed treaties with the new states.

Dragging Canoe and his band settled along Chickamauga Creek near present-day Chattanooga, Tennessee , where they established 11 new towns.

Chickamauga Town was his headquarters and the colonists tended to call his entire band the Chickamauga to distinguish them from other Cherokee.

From here he fought a guerrilla war against settlers, which lasted from to These are known informally as the Cherokee—American wars, but this is not an historians' term.

The first Treaty of Tellico Blockhouse , signed November 7, , finally brought peace between the Cherokee and Americans, who had achieved independence from the British Crown.

In , the Cherokee ceded their lands between the Cumberland and Duck rivers i. The traders and British government agents dealing with the southern tribes in general, and the Cherokee in particular, were nearly all of Scottish ancestry, with many documented as being from the Highlands.

Many of these men married women from their host peoples and remained after the fighting had ended. Some had mixed-race children who would later become significant leaders among the Five Civilized Tribes of the Southeast.

By contrast, a large portion of the settlers encroaching on the Native American territories were Scots-Irish , Irish from Ulster who were of Scottish descent and had been part of the English plantation of northern Ireland.

They also tended to support the Revolution. The Cherokee lands between the Tennessee and Chattahoochee rivers were remote enough from white settlers to remain independent after the Cherokee—American wars.

The deerskin trade was no longer feasible on their greatly reduced lands, and over the next several decades, the people of the fledgling Cherokee Nation began to build a new society modeled on the white Southern United States.

He encouraged the Cherokee to abandon their communal land-tenure and settle on individual farmsteads, which was facilitated by the destruction of many American Indian towns during the American Revolutionary War.

The deerskin trade brought white-tailed deer to the brink of extinction, and as pigs and cattle were introduced, they became the principal sources of meat.

The government supplied the tribes with spinning wheels and cotton-seed, and men were taught to fence and plow the land, in contrast to their traditional division in which crop cultivation was woman's labor.

Americans instructed the women in weaving. Eventually Hawkins helped them set up smithys, gristmills and cotton plantations. Hicks advocated acculturation, formal education, and modern methods of farming.

In they invited Moravian missionaries from North Carolina to teach Christianity and the 'arts of civilized life.

Chief James Vann opened a tavern, inn and ferry across the Chattahoochee and built a cotton-plantation on a spur of the road from Athens, Georgia to Nashville.

His son 'Rich Joe' Vann developed the plantation to acres 3. He exported cotton to England, and owned a steamboat on the Tennessee River.

The Cherokee allied with the U. Major Ridge moved his family to Rome, Georgia , where he built a substantial house , developed a large plantation and ran a ferry on the Oostanaula River.

Although he never learned English, he sent his son and nephews to New England to be educated in mission schools. During this period, divisions arose between the acculturated elite and the great majority of Cherokee, who clung to traditional ways of life.

Around Sequoyah began developing a written form of the Cherokee language. He spoke no English, but his experiences as a silversmith dealing regularly with white settlers, and as a warrior at Horseshoe Bend, convinced him the Cherokee needed to develop writing.

In , he introduced Cherokee syllabary , the first written syllabic form of an American Indian language outside of Central America.

Initially his innovation was opposed by both Cherokee traditionalists and white missionaries, who sought to encourage the use of English.

When Sequoyah taught children to read and write with the syllabary, he reached the adults. By the s, the Cherokee had a higher rate of literacy than the whites around them in Georgia.

In , the Cherokee began holding council meetings at New Town, at the headwaters of the Oostanaula near present-day Calhoun, Georgia.

They had developed a police force, a judicial system, and a National Committee. In , the Cherokee Nation drafted a Constitution modeled on the United States, with executive, legislative and judicial branches and a system of checks and balances.

The two-tiered legislature was led by Major Ridge and his son John Ridge. Convinced the tribe's survival required English-speaking leaders who could negotiate with the U.

They translated the Bible into Cherokee syllabary. Boudinot published the first edition of the bilingual ' Cherokee Phoenix ,' the first American Indian newspaper, in February Before the final removal to present-day Oklahoma, many Cherokees relocated to present-day Arkansas , Missouri and Texas.

In , the federal government promised to extinguish Indian titles to lands claimed by Georgia in return for Georgia's cession of the western lands that became Alabama and Mississippi.

To convince the Cherokee to move voluntarily in , the US government established a Cherokee Reservation in Arkansas.

These Cherokees became known as "Old Settlers. The Cherokee, eventually, migrated as far north as the Missouri Bootheel by They lived interspersed among the Delawares and Shawnees of that area.

Louis , the Osage were made to "cede and relinquish to the United States, all their right, title, interest, and claim, to lands lying within the State of Missouri and Territory of Arkansas A group of Cherokee traditionalists led by Di'wali moved to Spanish Texas in Settling near Nacogdoches , they were welcomed by Mexican authorities as potential allies against Anglo-American colonists.

In , they signed a treaty with Texas President Sam Houston , an adopted member of the Cherokee tribe. His successor Mirabeau Lamar sent militia to evict them in These were the " Old Settlers ", the first of the Cherokee to make their way to what would eventually become Indian Territory modern day Oklahoma.

This effort was headed by Indian Agent Return J. Meigs , and was finalized with the signing of the Jackson and McMinn Treaty , giving the Old Settlers undisputed title to the lands designated for their use.

During this time, Georgia focused on removing the Cherokee's neighbors, the Lower Creek. The state's northwestern border reached the Chattahoochee , the border of the Cherokee Nation.

In , gold was discovered at Dahlonega , on Cherokee land claimed by Georgia. The Georgia Gold Rush was the first in U. When Andrew Jackson was inaugurated as President in , Georgia gained a strong ally in Washington.

Jackson claimed the removal policy was an effort to prevent the Cherokee from facing extinction as a people, which he considered the fate that " A modern analysis shows that the area was in general in a state of economic surplus and could have accommodated both the Cherokee and new settlers.

The Cherokee brought their grievances to a US judicial review that set a precedent in Indian country. John Ross traveled to Washington, D. Supreme Court in Cherokee Nation v.

In Georgia militia arrested Samuel Worcester for residing on Indian lands without a state permit, imprisoning him in Milledgeville.

In Worcester v. Georgia , the US Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that American Indian nations were "distinct, independent political communities retaining their original natural rights," and entitled to federal protection from the actions of state governments that infringed on their sovereignty.

Georgia is considered one of the most important dicta in law dealing with Native Americans. Jackson ignored the Supreme Court's ruling, as he needed to conciliate Southern sectionalism during the era of the Nullification Crisis.

His landslide reelection in emboldened calls for Cherokee removal. Georgia sold Cherokee lands to its citizens in a Land Lottery , and the state militia occupied New Echota.

Ross had the support of Cherokee traditionalists, who could not imagine removal from their ancestral lands.

A small group known as the "Ridge Party" or the "Treaty Party" saw relocation as inevitable and believed the Cherokee Nation needed to make the best deal to preserve their rights in Indian Territory.

Led by Major Ridge , John Ridge and Elias Boudinot , they represented the Cherokee elite, whose homes, plantations and businesses were confiscated, or under threat of being taken by white squatters with Georgia land-titles.

With capital to acquire new lands, they were more inclined to accept relocation. John Ross gathered over 15, signatures for a petition to the U.

Senate, insisting that the treaty was invalid because it did not have the support of the majority of the Cherokee people. The Senate passed the Treaty of New Echota by a one-vote margin.

It was enacted into law in May Intermarried European Americans and missionaries also walked the Trail of Tears. Ross preserved a vestige of independence by negotiating permission for the Cherokee to conduct their own removal under U.

In keeping with the tribe's "blood law" that prescribed the death penalty for Cherokee who sold lands, Ross's son arranged the murder of the leaders of the "Treaty Party".

Boudinot's brother Stand Watie fought and survived that day, escaping to Arkansas. After the Trail of Tears, he helped mediate divisions between the Old Settlers and the rival factions of the more recent arrivals.

The Cherokee living along the Oconaluftee River in the Great Smoky Mountains were the most conservative and isolated from European—American settlements.

They rejected the reforms of the Cherokee Nation. When the Cherokee government ceded all territory east of the Little Tennessee River to North Carolina in , they withdrew from the Nation.

An additional Cherokee stayed on reserves in Southeast Tennessee, North Georgia, and Northeast Alabama, as citizens of their respective states.

They were mostly mixed-race and Cherokee women married to white men. Together, these groups were the ancestors of the federally recognized Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians , and some of the state-recognized tribes in surrounding states.

Stand Watie , the leader of the Ridge Party, raised a regiment for Confederate service in John Ross , who had reluctantly agreed to ally with the Confederacy, was captured by Federal troops in He lived in a self-imposed exile in Philadelphia , supporting the Union.

In the Indian Territory, the national council of those who supported the Union voted to abolish slavery in the Cherokee Nation in , but they were not the majority slaveholders and the vote had little effect on those supporting the Confederacy.

Watie was elected Principal Chief of the pro-Confederacy majority. A master of hit-and-run cavalry tactics, Watie fought those Cherokee loyal to John Ross and Federal troops in Indian Territory and Arkansas , capturing Union supply trains and steamboats , and saving a Confederate army by covering their retreat after the Battle of Pea Ridge in March App Store.

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The Otali dialect has drifted significantly from Sequoyah's syllabary in the past years, and many contracted and borrowed words have been adopted into the language.

These noun and verb roots in Cherokee, however, can still be mapped to Sequoyah's syllabary. There are more than 85 syllables in use by modern Cherokee speakers.

Modern Cherokee speakers who speak Otali employ distinct syllables in Oklahoma. In , the Tri-Council of Cherokee tribes declared a state of emergency for the language due to the threat of it going extinct, calling for the enhancement of revitalization programs.

Ten years later, the number was believed to be As Cherokee is official, the entire constitution of the United Keetoowah Band is available in both English and Cherokee.

As an official language, any tribal member may communicate with the tribal government in Cherokee or English, English translation services are provided for Cherokee speakers, and both Cherokee and English are used when the tribe provides services, resources, and information to tribal members or when communicating with the tribal council.

In The Cherokee Nation instigated a year language preservation plan that involved growing new fluent speakers of the Cherokee language from childhood on up through school immersion programs, as well as a collaborative community effort to continue to use the language at home.

They have accomplished: "Curriculum development, teaching materials and teacher training for a total immersion program for children, beginning when they are preschoolers, that enables them to learn Cherokee as their first language.

The participating children and their parents learn to speak and read together. The Tribe operates the Kituwah Academy ". The family of Iroquoian languages has a unique phonological inventory.

Unlike most languages, the Cherokee inventory of consonants lacks the labial sounds p , b , f , and v. Cherokee does, however, have one labial consonant m , but it is rare, appearing in no more than ten native words.

Instead, it uses w. As with many Iroquoian languages, Cherokee's phonemic inventory is small. The consonants for North Carolina Cherokee are given in the table below.

The consonants of all Iroquoian languages pattern so that they may be grouped as oral obstruents, sibilants, laryngeals, and resonants Lounsbury There are two main competing orthographies, depending on how plain and aspirated stops incl.

There are six short vowels and six long vowels in the Cherokee inventory. It is similar to the nasalized vowel in the French word un which means "one".

Sequences of two non-identical vowels are disallowed and the vowel clash must be resolved. There are four strategies depending on the phonological and morphological environments: [73].

Oklahoma Cherokee distinguishes six pitch patterns or tones , using four pitch levels. Two tones are level low, high and appear on short or long vowels.

The other four are contour tones rising, falling, lowfall, superhigh and appear on long vowels only. There is no academic consensus on the notation of tone and length.

Below are the main conventions, along with the standardized IPA notation. North Carolina Cherokee exhibits less tonal features and retains more archaic traits like glottal stops.

It is often used to assert hypotheses on tonogenesis in Oklahoma Cherokee. While the tonal system is undergoing a gradual simplification in many areas, it remains important in meaning and is still held strongly by many, especially older, speakers.

The syllabary displays neither tone nor vowel length, but as stated earlier regarding the paucity of minimal pairs, real cases of ambiguity are rare.

Native speakers can tell the difference between written words based solely on context. Cherokee, like many Native American languages, is polysynthetic , meaning that many morphemes may be linked together to form a single word, which may be of great length.

Cherokee verbs , the most important word type, must contain as a minimum a pronominal prefix , a verb root, an aspect suffix, and a modal suffix.

The pronominal prefix is g- , which indicates first person singular. The verb root is -e , "to go.

The present-tense modal suffix for regular verbs in Cherokee is -a. Cherokee has 17 verb tenses and 10 persons. The following is a conjugation in the present tense of the verb to go.

The translation uses the present progressive "at this time I am going". Cherokee differentiates between progressive "I am going" and habitual "I go" more than English does.

Verbs can also have prepronominal prefixes, reflexive prefixes, and derivative suffixes. Given all possible combinations of affixes, each regular verb can have 21, inflected forms.

Cherokee does not make gender distinctions. Like many Native American languages, Cherokee has many pronominal prefixes that can index both subject and object.

Pronominal prefixes always appear on verbs and can also appear on adjectives and nouns. Some Cherokee verbs require special classifiers which denote a physical property of the direct object.

Only around 20 common verbs require one of these classifiers such as the equivalents of "pick up", "put down", "remove", "wash", "hide", "eat", "drag", "have", "hold", "put in water", "put in fire", "hang up", "be placed", "pull along".

The classifiers can be grouped into five categories:. There have been reports that the youngest speakers of Cherokee are using only the indefinite forms, suggesting a decline in usage or full acquisition of the system of shape classification.

Simple declarative sentences usually have a subject-object-verb word order. Adjectives come before nouns, as in English. Relative clauses follow noun phrases.

A Cherokee sentence may not have a verb as when two noun phrases form a sentence. In such a case, word order is flexible. Cherokee is written in an character syllabary invented by Sequoyah also known as Guest or George Gist.

Many of the letters resemble the Latin letters they derive from, but have completely unrelated sound values; Sequoyah had seen English, Hebrew , and Greek writing but did not know how to read them.

Two other scripts used to write Cherokee are a simple Latin transliteration and a more precise system with diacritical marks.

Each of the characters represents one syllable, as in the Japanese kana and the Bronze Age Greek Linear B writing systems. The first six characters represent isolated vowel syllables.

Characters for combined consonant and vowel syllables then follow. It is recited from left to right, top to bottom.

The charts below show the syllabary as arranged by Samuel Worcester along with his commonly used transliterations. He played a key role in the development of Cherokee printing from until his death in The transliteration working from the syllabary uses conventional consonants like qu, ts, The phonetic values of these characters do not equate directly to those represented by the letters of the Latin script.

Some characters represent two distinct phonetic values actually heard as different syllables , while others often represent different forms of the same syllable.

As with some other underspecified writing systems like Arabic , adult speakers can distinguish words by context.

Some Cherokee words pose a problem for transliteration software because they contain adjacent pairs of single letter symbols that without special provisions would be combined when doing the back conversion from Latin script to Cherokee.

Here are a few examples:. For these examples, the back conversion is likely to join s-a as sa or s-i as si. Transliterations sometimes insert an apostrophe to prevent this, producing itsalis'anedi cf.

Other Cherokee words contain character pairs that entail overlapping transliteration sequences. If the Latin script is parsed from left to right, longest match first, then without special provisions, the back conversion would be wrong for the latter.

There are several similar examples involving these character combinations: naha nahe nahi naho nahu nahv. A further problem encountered in transliterating Cherokee is that there are some pairs of different Cherokee words that transliterate to the same word in the Latin script.

Here are some examples:. Cherokee was added to the Unicode Standard in September, with the release of version 3. Windows Vista also includes a Cherokee font.

A commercial font, Phoreus Cherokee, published by TypeCulture, includes multiple weights and styles. Cherokee uses Arabic numerals 0—9.

The Cherokee council voted not to adopt Sequoyah's numbering system. These last two symbols, representing "," and ",,", are made up of two separate symbols each.

They have a symbol in common, which could be used as a zero in itself. The polysynthetic nature of the Cherokee language enables the language to develop new descriptive words in Cherokee to reflect or express new concepts.

Other words were adopted from the languages of tribes who settled in Oklahoma in the early s.

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